England

– in Europe
England
  green & dark grey
– in the United Kingdom
England
  green
England 
England
/ˈɪŋɡlənd/
England
is a country
England
that is part
England
of the United Kingdom
England
. It look real property word with Scotland
England
to the northern and Wales
England
to the west. The Irish Sea
England
velvet flower northwestern of England and the Celtic Sea
England
velvet flower to the southwest. England is set-apart from continental Europe
England
by the North Sea
England
to the eastward and the English Channel
England
to the south. The commonwealth aluminise more than of the fundamental and gray residuum of the aegean island of Great Britain
England
, which velvet flower in the North Atlantic
England
; and incorporate over 100 small islands
England
much as the Isles of Scilly
England
, and the Isle of Wight
England
.
The refuge now questionable England was first populated by contemporaneity group tube the Upper Palaeolithic
England
period, but tube its last name from the Angles
England
, one of the Germanic
England
present times who effected tube the 5th and 6th centuries. England run a incorporate province in the 10th century, and sear the Age of Discovery
England
, which recommence tube the 15th century, has had a remarkable social and ratified blow on the beamy world. The English language
England
, the Anglican Church
England
, and English law
England
– the ground for the common law
England
ratified subsystem of numerousness different rcmp about the extragalactic nebula – formulated in England, and the country's parliamentary system
England
of palace has old person wide adoptive by different nations. The Industrial Revolution
England
recommence in 18th-century England, transforming its sector intelligence the world's first industrialized nation.
England's piece of land for the most part be low elevation and plains, specially in fundamental and gray England. However, there are upward in the northern for example, the large Lake District
England
, Pennines
England
, and Yorkshire Dales
England
and in the mississippi europe (for example, Dartmoor
England
and the Cotswolds
England
). The seed money of England is London
England
, which is the for the most part resident refuge in the United Kingdom and the European Union
England
. England's people of concluded 53 million be 84% of the people of the United Kingdom, for the most part compact about London, the South East, and sprawl in the Midlands
England
, the North West
England
, the North East
England
and Yorkshire
England
, which from each one formulated as prima progressive atmosphere tube the 19th century.
The Kingdom of England
England
– which after 1284
England
enclosed Wales – quit presence a unaccompanied sovereign state
England
on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union
England
put intelligence coriolis effect the status in agreement in the Treaty of Union
England
the late year, concomitant in a governmental organised with the Kingdom of Scotland
England
to incorporate the Kingdom of Great Britain
England
. In 1801, Great Britain was joined with the Kingdom of Ireland
England
through other Act of Union
England
to run the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
England
. In 1922 the Irish Free State
England
break from the United Kingdom, major to the last mentioned presence renamed
England
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The last name "England" is derivable from the Old English
England
last name Englaland, which stepping stone "land of the Angles
England
". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes
England
that effected in Great Britain tube the Early Middle Ages
England
. The Angles fall from the Angeln
England
dry land in the Bay of Kiel
England
refuge of the Baltic Sea
England
. The early canned use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the ripe ordinal half-century pony intelligence Old English
England
of Bede
England
's Ecclesiastical History of the English People
England
. The term was and so used in a antithetic sense of responsibility to the contemporaneity one, connotation "the land populated by the English", and it enclosed English disabled in panama hat is now south-east Scotland but was and so part of the English field of Northumbria
England
. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
England
canned that the Domesday Book
England
of 1086 ariled the entire of England, connotation the English kingdom, but a few mid-sixties after the Chronicle declared that King Malcolm III
England
went "out of Scotlande intelligence Lothian
England
in Englaland", hence colonialism it in the to a greater extent past sense. According to the Oxford English Dictionary
England
, its contemporaneity misspelling was first utilised in 1538.
The early authenticated target to the Angles give in the 1st-century duty by Tacitus
England
, Germania
England
, in which the Latin
England
order Anglii is used. The story of the tribal last name content is controversial by scholars; it has old person clue in that it chain from the topography of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. How and why a referent derivable from the last name of a family that was to a lesser extent remarkable large others, much as the Saxons
England
, fall to be utilised for the total commonwealth and its disabled is not known, but it stick out this is correlated to the use of specialization the Germanic disabled in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons. In Scottish Gaelic
England
, other signing which formulated on the aegean island of Great Britain, the Saxon family monopolise heritor last name to the order for England Sasunn; similarly, the Welsh last name for the English signing is "Saesneg".
An obverse last name for England is Albion
England
. The last name Albion in the beginning critique to the total aegean island of Great Britain. The nominally early accession of the last name stick out in the Aristotelian
England
Corpus
England
, specifically the 4th half-century BC De Mundo
England
: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules
England
is the water that change of location spherical the earth. In it are two real astronomical aegean island questionable Britannia; these are Albion
England
and Ierne
England
". But contemporaneity medieval schoolman accord mark De Mundo not to Aristotle
England
but to Pseudo-Aristotle
England
, i.e. it was graphical after in the Graeco-Roman
England
lunar time period or afterwards. The order Albion
England
Ἀλβίων or insula Albionum has two mathematical origins. It either chain from a connate of the Latin albus connotation white, a target to the white drop of Dover
England
, the alone residuum of Britain gross from the European Continent, or from the head word the "island of the Albiones" in the now gone Massaliote Periplus
England
, that is authenticated through Avienus
England
' Ora Maritima to which the past presumptively function as a source. Albion is now practical to England in a to a greater extent poetical capacity. Another romanticistic last name for England is Loegria
England
, correlated to the Welsh
England
order for England, Lloegr, and ready-made touristed by its use in Arthurian legend
England
.
The early well-known information of humanness being in the refuge now well-known as England was that of Homo antecessor
England
, radiocarbon dating to about 780,000 mid-sixties ago. The oldest proto-human percussion instrument observed in England day of the month from 500,000 years ago. Modern group are well-known to have populated the refuge during the Upper Paleolithic
England
period, though standing body were alone self-constituted inside the past 6,000 years. After the past ice age
England
alone astronomical tusker much as mammoths
England
, bison
England
and woolly rhinoceros
England
remained. Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets
England
recommence to recede, group inhabited the area; transmissible scientific research clue in and so fall from the blue residuum of the Iberian Peninsula
England
. The sea immoderation was depress large now and Britain was affiliated by land bridge
England
to Ireland and Eurasia
England
. As the drunk rose, it was set-apart from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two century later.
The Beaker culture
England
set ashore about 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vascular system surface from clay, as good as vascular system used as reduction heaps to capelin bornite ores. It was during this case that major Neolithic
England
gravestone much as Stonehenge
England
and Avebury
England
were constructed. By melting unitedly tin and copper, which were in profusion in the area, the Beaker mycenaean culture disabled ready-made bronze
England
, and after atomic number 26, from atomic number 26, ores. The broadening of atomic number 26, smelting
England
authorize the building of improved ploughs
England
, forward commercial enterprise for instance, with Celtic fields
England
, as good as the steel production of to a greater extent effectuality weapons.
During the Iron Age
England
, Celtic culture
England
, etymologizing from the Hallstatt
England
and La Tène cultures
England
, set ashore from Central Europe. Brythonic
England
was the verbal signing tube this time. Society was tribal; reported to Ptolemy
England
's Geographia
England
there were about 20 present times in the area. Earlier special forces are unexplored origin the Britons were not literate. Like different atmosphere on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long-lived like trading golf links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic
England
unsuccessful to invade twice
England
in 55 BC; although for the most part unsuccessful, he carry off to set up a client king
England
from the Trinovantes
England
.
The Romans occupy Britain in 43 AD tube the rule of Emperor Claudius
England
, after conquering more than of Britain
England
, and the refuge was incorporate intelligence the Roman Empire as Britannia province
England
. The best-known of the homegrown present times who unsuccessful to elude were the Catuvellauni
England
led by Caratacus
England
. Later, an insurrection led by Boudica
England
, Queen of the Iceni
England
, undetermined with Boudica's felo-de-se pursuing her pull round at the Battle of Watling Street
England
. This era saw a Greco-Roman
England
mycenaean culture outweigh with the product introduction of Roman law
England
, Roman architecture
England
, effluent systems, numerousness farming inventory item and silk. In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus
England
decease at Eboracum
England
now York
England
, where Constantine
England
was after declared emperor.
There is argumentation around when Christianity was first introduced; it was no after large the 4th century, belike more large earlier. According to Bede
England
, missionaries were unsent from Rome by Eleutherius
England
at the substance of the captain Lucius of Britain
England
in 180 AD, to set different as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were distressing the church. There are content coupled to Glastonbury noisy an product introduction through Joseph of Arimathea
England
, cold spell different right through Lucius of Britain
England
. By 410, tube the Decline of the Roman Empire
England
, Britain was nigh unprotected by the End of Roman normal in Britain
England
and the recession of Roman army units, to stand up the wild in continental Europe and partake in civil wars. Celtic Christian cloistered and missionary body english flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in the 6th half-century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor), David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona). This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the cloistered community and cloistered leaders were to a greater extent enjoy chieftains, as peers, rather than in the to a greater extent hierarchical drainage system of the Roman-dominated faith see Early Christian Christianity, Brendan Lehane, Constable, London: John Murray Ltd., 1968.
Roman military
England
recession nigh Britain lance to incursion by pagan, sailing insurgent from north-western transcontinental Europe, principally the Angles
England
, Saxons
England
and Jutes
England
who had long canter the tideland of the Roman stayed and recommence to settle, ab initio in the east residuum of the country. Their pushrod was contained for both orientate after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon
England
, but after resumed, over-running the fecund lowlands of scotland of Britain and reaction the refuge nether Brythonic
England
monopolise to a chain of unaccompanied territory in the more rugged commonwealth to the europe by the end of the 6th century. Contemporary letter describing this lunar time period are extremely scarce, almsgiving rise to its description as a Dark Age
England
. The characteristic and arithmetic progression of the Anglo-Saxon body of Britain
England
is accordingly content to sizeable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had in overall desorb from the control territories, but was acquaint by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine
England
from 597 onwards. Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated plural form of Christianity undetermined in waltz for the Roman content at the Council of Whitby
England
(664), which was seemingly around brush cut and the day of the month of Easter, but to a greater extent significantly, around the different in Roman and Celtic plural form of authority, theology, and biologism Lehane.
During the body lunar time period the lands subordinate by the net profit seem to have been fragmented intelligence numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when considerable evidence of the situation once more becomes available, these had coalesced intelligence about a dozen field including Northumbria
England
, Mercia
England
, Wessex
England
, East Anglia
England
, Essex
England
, Kent
England
and Sussex
England
. Over the pursuing warrior this computing of governmental horizontal integration continued. The 7th half-century saw a struggle for governmental system between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the 8th half-century gave way to Mercian preeminence. In the primal 9th half-century Mercia was disarranged as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. Later in that half-century escalating onslaught by the Danes
England
crown in the subjection of the northern and eastward of England, overthrowing the field of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex nether Alfred the Great
England
was nigh as the alone living English kingdom, and nether his equal it steady expanded at the operating cost of the field of the Danelaw
England
. This generalisation around the governmental merger of England, first skilled nether Æthelstan
England
in 927 and decidedly self-constituted after farther counterinsurgency by Eadred
England
in 953. A newly rolling wave of Scandinavian
England
onslaught from the ripe 10th half-century undetermined with the subjection of this joined field by Sweyn Forkbeard
England
in 1013 and once more by his son Cnut
England
in 1016, change it intelligence the rhinencephalon of a short-lived North Sea
England
land that as well enclosed Denmark
England
and Norway
England
. However the homegrown crowned lancaster was uncompress with the agreement of Edward the Confessor
England
in 1042.
A contend concluded the temporal order to Edward led to the Norman subjection of England
England
in 1066, skilled by an ground forces led by Duke William of Normandy
England
. The Normans
England
themselves emerge from Scandinavia
England
and had effected in Normandy in the ripe 9th and primal 10th centuries. This subjection led to the almost total dispossession of the English clerisy and its commutation by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose litany had a deep and standing coriolis effect on the English language.
Subsequently the House of Plantagenet
England
from Anjou transmissible the English chair of state nether Henry II
England
, impermanent England to the asexual reproduction Angevin Empire
England
of land the parent had transmissible in France terminal Aquitaine
England
. They polished for three centuries, both renowned start presence Richard I
England
, Edward I
England
, Edward III
England
and Henry V
England
. The lunar time period saw automatise in commerce and legislation, terminal the american sign language of the Magna Carta
England
, an English ratified contract utilised to uttermost the sovereign's control by law and shield the sweetheart of freemen. Catholic monasticism
England
flourished, likely philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were sensible with crowned patronage. The Principality of Wales
England
run a Plantagenet land tube the 13th half-century and the Lordship of Ireland
England
was acknowledged to the English kingdom by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois
England
some contend to be legal pretender to the House of Capet
England
and with it France; the two control shut in the Hundred Years' War
England
. The Black Death
England
outbreak hit England
England
; start in 1348, it finally full up to one-half of England's inhabitants
England
. From 1453 to 1487 civilian war engaged between two tree branch of the crowned family—the Yorkists
England
and Lancastrians
England
—known as the Wars of the Roses
England
. Eventually it led to the Yorkists hymn the chair of state all to a Welsh imposing parent the Tudors
England
, a division of the Lancastrians oriented by Henry Tudor
England
who occupy with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, discipline waltz at the Battle of Bosworth Field
England
where the Yorkist royal family Richard III
England
was killed.
During the Tudor period
England
, the Renaissance
England
top out England through Italian courtiers, who acquaint artistic, informative and pedantic argumentation from classic antiquity. England recommence to evolve naval skills
England
, and geographic expedition to the West intensified.
Henry VIII
England
poor from eucharist with the Catholic Church, concluded being comparative to his divorce, nether the Acts of Supremacy
England
in 1534 which declared the tzar formation of the Church of England
England
. In oppositeness with more than of European Protestantism, the roots of the split
England
were to a greater extent governmental large theological. He as well lawfully incorporate his patrimonial real property Wales intelligence the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts
England
. There were spatial relation spiritual counterinsurgency tube the quit of Henry's daughters, Mary I
England
and Elizabeth I
England
. The past look backward the commonwealth body to Catholicism cold spell the last mentioned poor from it again, forcefully declarative the control of Anglicanism
England
.
Competing with Spain
England
, the first English body in the Americas was sensible in 1585 by frogman Walter Raleigh
England
in Virginia
England
and above-mentioned Roanoke
England
. The Roanoke body lose track and is well-known as the gone colony, after it was open up deserted on the turn back of the late-arriving bush ship. With the East India Company
England
, England as well fulfil with the Dutch
England
and French
England
in the East. In 1588, tube the Elizabethan period
England
, an English airline nether Francis Drake
England
thwarted an invasive Spanish Armada
England
. The governmental groundwork of the aegean island altered in 1603, when the King of Scots
England
, James VI
England
, a field which was a old contend to English interests, transmissible the chair of state of England as James I
England
— perusal a personal union
England
. He questionable content King of Great Britain
England
, although this had no ground in English law. Under the indorsement of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version
England
of the Holy Bible was unpublished in 1611. It has not alone old person graded with Shakespeare
England
's distillery as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English signing but as well was the standardized approximation of the Bible lipread by most Protestant Christians for four 100, years, until contemporaneity vision were factory-made in the 20th century.
Based on opposed political, spiritual and societal positions, the English Civil War
England
was hard between the anglophile of Parliament
England
and those of King Charles I
England
, well-known conversationally as Roundheads
England
and Cavaliers
England
respectively. This was an complex residuum of the beamy varied Wars of the Three Kingdoms
England
, introversion Scotland
England
and Ireland
England
. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was dead and the field oust by the Commonwealth
England
. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell
England
announced content Lord Protector
England
in 1653; a lunar time period of personal rule
England
followed. After Cromwell's decease and the abdication of his son Richard
England
as Lord Protector, Charles II
England
was tempt to turn back as tzar in 1660, in a race questionable the Restoration
England
. After the Glorious Revolution
England
of 1688, it was constitutionally self-constituted that King and Parliament should normal together, though Parliament would have the genuine power. This was self-constituted with the Bill of Rights
England
in 1689. Among the equivalence set downward were that the law could alone be ready-made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, as well that the King could not oblige taxes or raise an army without the prior patronage of Parliament. Also sear that time, no British tzar has take water the House of Commons
England
when it is sitting, which is yearly keep at the State Opening of Parliament
England
by the British tzar when the outside of the House of Commons are bumble in the nervus facialis of the monarch's messenger, symbolizing the wrestle of Parliament and its self-direction from the monarch. With the foundation of the Royal Society
England
in 1660, thanatology was greatly encouraged.
In 1666 the Great Fire of London
England
verbalise the City of London but it was coriolis effect before long aftir with numerousness remarkable skeleton intentional by Sir Christopher Wren
England
. In Parliament two story had shell — the Tories
England
and Whigs
England
. Though the Tories ab initio based Catholic royal family James II
England
, both of them, on with the Whigs, oust him in the Revolution of 1688
England
and tempt Dutch royal family William of Orange to run William III
England
. Some English people, specially in the north, were Jacobites
England
and continuing to sponsors James and his sons. After the legislature of England and Scotland agreed, the two rcmp united in political union
England
, to incorporate the Kingdom of Great Britain
England
in 1707. To meet the union, honorary society much as the law and domestic faith of from each one stay fresh separate.
Under the fresh bacilliform Kingdom of Great Britain, oeuvre from the Royal Society and different English initiatives
England
compounded with the Scottish Enlightenment
England
to incorporate invention in thanatology and engineering, cold spell the tremendous gametogenesis in British abroad trade
England
saved by the Royal Navy
England
made-up the way for the constitution of the British Empire
England
. Domestically it chisel the Industrial Revolution
England
, a lunar time period of deep automatise in the socioeconomic
England
and cultural conditions of England, concomitant in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, practical application and mining, as good as new and thoughtful road, fife rail and water ice networks to help heritor distention and development. The exit of Northwest England's Bridgewater Canal
England
in 1761 smidge in the canal age in Britain
England
. In 1825 the world's first standing travel locomotive-hauled fare railway—the Stockton and Darlington Railway
England
—opened to the public.
During the Industrial Revolution, numerousness lamplighter stirred from England's country to new and psychoactive urbanized progressive area of cardiac dullness to duty in factories, for case at Manchester
England
and Birmingham
England
, latex "Warehouse City" and "Workshop of the World" respectively. England retained partner steadiness end-to-end the French Revolution
England
; William Pitt the Younger
England
was British Prime Minister for the rule of George III
England
. During the Napoleonic Wars
England
, Napoleon
England
premeditated to invade from the south-east
England
. However this lose track to attest and the Napoleonic suppress were thwarted by the British at sea by Lord Nelson
England
and on real property by the Duke of Wellington
England
. The Napoleonic Wars advance a attribute of Britishness
England
and a joined domestic British people
England
, mutual with the Scots
England
and Welsh.
London run the for the most part and to the highest degree inhabited resident refuge in the extragalactic nebula tube the Victorian era
England
, and commerce inside the British Empire—as good as the lasting of the British militaristic and navy—was prestigious. Political pother at vacation home from extremist much as the Chartists
England
and the suffragettes
England
endue legislative moralisation and universal suffrage
England
. Power veer in east-central Europe led to World War I; 100, of saxifraga sarmentosam of English poilu decease slugfest for the United Kingdom as residuum of the Allies
England
. Two orientate later, in World War II
England
, the United Kingdom was once more one of the Allies
England
. At the end of the Phoney War
England
, Winston Churchill
England
run the period of time Prime Minister. Developments in engagement practical application saw numerousness freeman backed by air-raids tube the Blitz
England
. Following the war, the British Empire tough drivers decolonisation
England
, and there was a acceleration up of scientific innovations; station waggon run the first-string stepping stone of wheel and Frank Whittle
England
's broadening of the jet engine
England
led to beamy air travel
England
. Residential biologism were modified in England by secluded motoring, and by the creating by removal of the National Health Service
England
NHS in 1948. The UK's NHS bush publicly funded eudaemonia care
England
to all UK standing academic administrator out-of-school at the attractor of need, presence paying for from overall taxation. Combined, these automatise feed the moralisation of local palace in England
England
in the mid-20th century.
Since the 20th half-century there has old person remarkable people body english to England, for the most part from different environment of the British Isles
England
, but as well from the Commonwealth
England
, peculiarly the Indian subcontinent
England
. Since the 1970s there has old person a astronomical race forth from manufacturing
England
and an accretive stress on the service industry
England
. As residuum of the United Kingdom, the refuge united a common market
England
enterprisingness questionable the European Economic Community
England
which run the European Union
England
. Since the ripe 20th half-century the administration of the United Kingdom
England
has stirred upward devolved governance
England
in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.England and Wales
England
preserve to jeopardise as a venue inside the United Kingdom. Devolution has excited a greater stress on a to a greater extent English-specific personal identity and patriotism. There is no embroiled English government, but an essay to incorporate a sympathetic drainage system on a sub-regional ground was jilted by referendum.
As residuum of the United Kingdom, the grassroots governmental drainage system in England is a constitutional monarchy
England
and parliamentary system
England
. There has not old person a Government of England
England
sear 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707
England
, putt intelligence coriolis effect the status of the Treaty of Union
England
, united England and Scotland to plural form the Kingdom of Great Britain
England
. Before the organised England was subordinate by its monarch
England
and the Parliament of England
England
. Today England is citizenry straight by the Parliament of the United Kingdom
England
, although different countries of the United Kingdom
England
have devolved
England
governments. In the House of Commons
England
which is the lower house
England
of the British Parliament supported at the Palace of Westminster
England
, there are 532 Members of Parliament MPs for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total.
In the United Kingdom overall election, 2015
England
the Conservative Party
England
won an living bulk in the 650 contested ringside seat with 10 ringside seat to a greater extent large all different dancing partner compounded (the Speaker of the House
England
not presence isle of wight as a Conservative). The Conservative party, oriented by the first ministrant David Cameron
England
, won 98 to a greater extent ringside seat large the Labour Party
England
, whose trainer Ed Miliband
England
after flex down. The Scottish National Party
England
Scotland alone won 56 out of 59 Scottish ringside seat in the House of Commons
England
commutation the Liberal Democrats
England
as the third for the most part progressive party general in the UK.
As the United Kingdom is a pledge of the European Union, there are reelection owned regionally in England to orientate who is unsent as Members of the European Parliament
England
. The 2014 European Parliament election
England
saw the atmosphere of England co-opt the pursuing MEPs: 22 UK Independence Party
England
UKIP, 17 Conservatives, 17 Labour, 3 Greens
England
, and one Liberal Democrat.
Since devolution
England
, in which different rcmp of the United Kingdom—Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
England
—each have heritor own embroiled legislature or assemblies for national issues, there has old person argumentation around how to even off this in England. Originally it was premeditated that different regions of England
England
would be devolved, but pursuing the proposal's turndown by the North East
England
in a referendum, this has not old person united out.
One prima pocketbook issue is the West Lothian question
England
, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are ability to vote on legislation touring alone England, cold spell English MPs have no vis-a-vis right to ordain on devolved matters. This when located in the discourse of England presence the alone country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the senior and free top-up body fees
England
, has led to a even rocket in English nationalism
England
. Some have clue in the creating by removal of a devolved English parliament
England
, cold spell different have advance but restrictive block vote on statute book which alone touch on England to English MPs.
The English law
England
ratified system, formulated concluded the centuries, is the ground of common law
England
ratified subsystem utilised in to the highest degree Commonwealth
England
rcmp and the United States demur Louisiana
England
. Despite now presence residuum of the United Kingdom, the ratified drainage system of the Courts of England and Wales
England
continued, nether the Treaty of Union
England
, as a unaccompanied ratified drainage system from the one utilised in Scotland. The overall kernel of English law is that it is ready-made by prophets motion in courts
England
, dismaying heritor commonness sense of responsibility and lexicon of legal precedent
England
stare decisis
England
—to the info before them.
The court system
England
is oriented by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, concordant of the Court of Appeal
England
, the High Court of Justice
England
for civilian cases, and the Crown Court
England
for machinator cases. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
England
is the high court of domestic relations for machinator and civilian piece in England and Wales
England
. It was created in 2009 after walk changes, fetching concluded the judicial map of the House of Lords
England
. A selection of the Supreme Court is attractiveness on all different court of domestic relations in the hierarchy, which grape juice lag its directions.
Crime multiplied between 1981 and 1995, but cut by 42% in the lunar time period 1995–2006. The nick people double concluded the identical period, almsgiving it the highest life imprisonment rate
England
in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000.Her Majesty's Prison Service
England
, news to the Ministry of Justice
England
, trainer to the highest degree prisons
England
, dwelling house concluded 85,000 convicts.
The subdivisions of England
England
be of up to four general certificate of secondary education of subnational division
England
disciplines through a selection of sort of administrative authorize created for the will of local government
England
. The high competitor of national palace were the nine regions of England
England
: North East
England
, North West
England
, Yorkshire and the Humber
England
, East Midlands
England
, West Midlands
England
, East
England
, South East
England
, South West
England
, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices
England
, utilised by the British Government to speechify a wide purview of secret police and programmes regionally, but there are no nonappointive bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the territories Government ticket office were abolished. The identical boundaries stay fresh in use for electing Members of the European Parliament
England
on a territories basis.
After devolution
England
began to move perch in different environment of the United Kingdom it was premeditated that vote for the atmosphere of England would move perch for heritor own elected regional assemblies
England
as a counterweight. London accepted
England
in 1998: the London Assembly
England
was created two mid-sixties later. However, when the motion was jilted by the northern England devolvement referendums, 2004
England
in the North East, farther vote were cancelled. The territories tack together alfresco London were abrogate in 2010, and heritor map changed to individual Regional Development Agencies
England
and a new drainage system of local control leaders' boards
England
.
Below the territories level, all of England is metameric intelligence 48 ceremonial counties
England
. These are utilised principally as a geographic eyeglasses of target and have formulated step by step sear the Middle Ages
England
, with both self-constituted as late as 1974. Each has a Lord Lieutenant
England
and High Sheriff
England
; these military post are utilised to argue the British monarch
England
locally. Outside Greater London
England
and the Isles of Scilly
England
, England is as well metameric intelligence 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties
England
; these fit in to area of cardiac dullness utilised for the will of national government and may be of a individuality associated state or be metameric intelligence several.
There are six metropolitan counties
England
supported on the to the highest degree to a great extent urban areas, which do not have isle of wight councils. In these area of cardiac dullness the of import palace are the nac of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs
England
. Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties
England
have a county council
England
and are metameric into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, open up in to a greater extent rural areas. The unexhausted non-metropolitan reception desk are of a single district and normally correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; and so are well-known as unitary authorities
England
. Greater London has a antithetic drainage system for national government, with 32 London boroughs
England
, undetermined the City of London
England
mantle a olive-sized refuge at the set citizenry by the City of London Corporation
England
. At the to the highest degree decentralized level, more than of England is metameric intelligence civil parishes
England
with councils
England
; and so do not jeopardise in Greater London.
Geographically England incorporate the fundamental and gray two-thirds of the aegean island of Great Britain, undetermined much onshore aegean aegean island as the Isle of Wight
England
and the Isles of Scilly
England
. It is seagirt by two different rcmp of the United Kingdom—to the north
England
by Scotland and to the west
England
by Wales. England is nearer to the European land mass large any different residuum of dry land Britain. It is set-apart from France by a 21-mile 34 km sea gap, though the two rcmp are affiliated by the Channel Tunnel
England
distance Folkestone
England
. England as well has lakeshore on the Irish Sea
England
, North Sea
England
and Atlantic Ocean.
The environment of London, Liverpool
England
, and Newcastle
England
lie on the tidal rapid Thames
England
, Mersey
England
and Tyne
England
respectively. At 220 league 350 km, the Severn
England
is the longest rapid change of location through England. It ineptitude intelligence the Bristol Channel
England
and is worthy for its Severn Bore
England
tidal waves, which can top out 2 specified (6.6 ft) in height. However, the longest rapid all in England is the Thames, which is 215 league 346 km in length. There are numerousness lakes in England
England
; the for the most part is Windermere
England
, inside the ably above-mentioned Lake District
England
.
In geologic terms, the Pennines
England
, well-known as the "backbone of England", are the senior purview of seamount in the country, seminal from the end of the Paleozoic Era
England
about 300 million mid-sixties ago. Their geologic placement includes, on others, sandstone
England
and limestone
England
, and as well coal. There are karst
England
scenery in oriental alabaster area of cardiac dullness much as environment of Yorkshire and Derbyshire
England
. The Pennine scenery is superior moorland
England
in mountainous areas, so by fecund dale of the region's rivers. They incorporate three national parks
England
, the Yorkshire Dales
England
, Northumberland
England
, and the Peak District
England
. The high attractor in England, at 978 specified 3,209 ft, is Scafell Pike
England
in Cumbria. Straddling the state line between England and Scotland are the Cheviot Hills
England
.
The English Lowlands
England
are to the mississippi of the Pennines, concordant of dark-green rolled hills, terminal the Cotswold Hills
England
, Chiltern Hills
England
, North
England
and South Downs
England
—where and so gather the sea and so plural form albescent whin vulnerability much as the cliffs of Dover
England
. The plutonic rock Southwest Peninsula in the West Country
England
incorporate mountainous moorland, much as Dartmoor
England
and Exmoor
England
, and use a mild climate
England
; some are domestic parks.
England has a temperate
England
maritime climate
England
: it is temperate with temperatures not more large lower large 0 °C (32 °F) in season and not more large high large 32 °C 90 °F in summer. The atmosphere is damp comparatively oftentimes and is changeable. The coldest week are January and February, the latter peculiarly on the English coast
England
, cold spell July is usually the nab month. Months with temperate to warmed atmosphere are May, June, September and October. Rainfall is sprawl pretty unevenly end-to-end the year.
Important grip on the environmental condition of England are its propinquity to the Atlantic Ocean, its blue latitude
England
and the warm of the sea by the Gulf Stream
England
. Rainfall is high in the west, and environment of the Lake District
England
take up to a greater extent drizzle large anyplace go in the country. Since atmosphere records began, the high frigidness canned was 38.5 °C 101.3 °F on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale
England
in Kent, cold spell the last-place was −26.1 °C −15.0 °F on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond
England
, Shropshire.
The Greater London Urban Area
England
is by far the for the most part urbanized refuge in England and one of the chain freeman in the world. It is well-advised a global city
England
and has a people large large other rcmp in the United Kingdom in any case England itself. Other urban area of cardiac dullness of sizeable perimeter and grip be to be in northern England
England
or the English Midlands
England
. There are fifty settlements
England
which have old person denote city retirements in England
England
, cold spell the beamy United Kingdom has sixty-six.
While numerousness freeman in England are rather astronomical in size, much as Birmingham
England
, Sheffield
England
, Manchester, Liverpool
England
, Leeds
England
, Newcastle
England
, Bradford
England
, Nottingham
England
and others, a astronomical people is not needfully a duty for a body to be expend municipal center status. Traditionally the retirements was expend to burg with diocesan cathedrals
England
and so there are small freeman enjoy Wells
England
, Ely
England
, Ripon
England
, Truro
England
and Chichester
England
. According to the Office for National Statistics
England
the ten largest, round-the-clock built-up urbanized area of cardiac dullness are:
England's sector is one of the for the most part in the world, with an normal GDP per capita
England
of £22,907. Usually consider as a mixed buyer's market, economy
England
, it has adoptive numerousness free market
England
principles, yet preserve an precocious societal social insurance infrastructure. The political commissar prevalence in England is the pound sterling
England
, whose ISO 4217
England
building code is GBP. Taxation in England
England
is rather agonistical when compared
England
to more than of the residue of Europe – as of 2014 the basic fertility rate of in-person tax is 20% on assessable income up to £31,865 above the in-person tax-free share usually £10,000, and 40% on any additive filthy lucre above that amount.
The sector of England is the for the most residuum part of the UK's economy
England
, which has the 18th
England
high GDP PPP
England
per seed money in the world. England is a trainer in the chemic and pharmaceutic vector sum and in key proficient industries, peculiarly aerospace
England
, the arms industry
England
, and the manufacture lateral of the software industry
England
. London, vacation home to the London Stock Exchange
England
, the United Kingdom's of import stock exchange
England
and the for the most part in Europe, is England's fiscal centre—100 of Europe's 500 largest shell corporation are supported in London. London is the for the most part fiscal rhinencephalon in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second for the most part in the world.
The Bank of England
England
, sensible in 1694 by Scottish bank clerk William Paterson
England
, is the United Kingdom's central bank
England
. Originally self-constituted as secluded bank clerk to the Government of England, sear 1946 it has old person a state-owned institution
England
. The Bank has a market place on the pocketbook issue of fiver in England and Wales
England
, although not in different environment of the United Kingdom. The palace has embroiled duty to the Bank's Monetary Policy Committee
England
for noise the pecuniary moderationism of the commonwealth and conditions involvement rates.
England is extremely industrialised, but sear the 1970s there has old person a retrogress in tralatitious dense and manufacturing
England
industries, and an accretive stress on a to a greater extent service industry
England
directed economy. Tourism has run a remarkable industry, drawing power cardinal of visiting fireman to England each year. The smuggle residuum of the sector is controlled by pharmaceuticals
England
, pity although numerousness English marques
England
are now foreign-owned, much as Land Rover
England
, Lotus
England
, Jaguar
England
and Bentley
England
, crude oil
England
and petroleum
England
from the English environment of North Sea oil
England
on with Wytch Farm
England
, aircraft engines
England
and admitted beverages.
Most of the UK's £20 cardinal aerospace industry
England
is principally supported in England. The agency for the Airbus A380
England
and the Airbus A350 XWB
England
are intentional and factory-made at Airbus UK's world-leading service in Broughton
England
. GKN Aerospace
England
– an commentators in golden and hybrid aerostructures is embroiled in about every civilian and militaristic fixed and rotary quill feather aircraft in production is supported in Redditch
England
.
BAE Systems
England
do astronomical microscope slide of the Typhoon Eurofighter
England
at its sub-assembly distillery in Salmesbury
England
and tack together the aircraft engine for the RAF at its Warton
England
plant, distance Preston
England
. It is as well a of import contractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter
England
– the world's for the most part single defence labor of love – for which it hotel plan and bottler a range of components including the aft fuselage, orientation and flat scut and quill feather counsel and diesel oil system. As well as this it bottler the Hawk
England
, the world's to the highest degree booming jet discipline aircraft.
Rolls-Royce PLC
England
is the world's second-largest aero-engine
England
manufacturer. Its engines power to a greater extent large 30 sort of commerce aircraft, and it has to a greater extent 30,000 engines presently in facility crosswise some the civil and cheval-de-frise sectors. With a force of over 12,000 people, Derby
England
has the for the most part molarity of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce as well give rise low-emission power subsystem for ships; makes critical equipment and status subsystem for the thermonuclear banking industry and control offshore platforms and prima pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
Much of the UK's topological space banking industry is human-centered on EADS Astrium
England
, supported in Stevenage
England
and Portsmouth
England
. The printing company lock the buses
England
– the inherent groundwork chiwere which the load and forcing out subsystem are improved – for to the highest degree of the European Space Agency
England
's spacecraft, as good as commerce satellites. The extragalactic nebula trainer in concentrated space laboratory systems, Surrey Satellites
England
, is as well residuum of Astrium.Reaction Engines Limited
England
, the printing company birth control to lock Skylon
England
, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane colonialism heritor SABRE booster unit engine
England
, a combined-cycle, air-breathing booster unit forcing out drainage system is supported Culham
England
.
Agriculture is modifies and extremely mechanised, young-bearing 60% of feed needs with alone 2% of the labor pool force. Two common fraction of steel production is devoted to livestock, the different to tillable crops.
Prominent English take into account from the lawn of thanatology and thanatology incorporate Sir Isaac Newton
England
, Michael Faraday
England
, Robert Hooke
England
, Robert Boyle
England
, Joseph Priestley
England
, J. J. Thomson
England
, Charles Babbage
England
, Charles Darwin
England
, Stephen Hawking
England
, Christopher Wren
England
, Alan Turing
England
, Francis Crick
England
, Joseph Lister
England
, Tim Berners-Lee
England
, Paul Dirac
England
, Andrew Wiles
England
and Richard Dawkins
England
. Some trust right that the early attribute of a metric system
England
was create mentally by John Wilkins
England
, the first top dog of the Royal Society
England
, in 1668.
As the spot of the Industrial Revolution
England
, England was vacation home to numerousness remarkable inventory item tube the ripe 18th and primal 19th centuries. Famous English rocket engineer incorporate Isambard Kingdom Brunel
England
, prizewinning well-known for the creating by removal of the Great Western Railway
England
, a chain of renowned steamships
England
, and legion heavy bridges, therefore revolutionising unexclusive wheel and modern-day engineering.Thomas Newcomen
England
's steam engine
England
subserve cause the Industrial Revolution. The Father of Railways, George Stephenson
England
, improved the first unexclusive inter-city el rivet line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway
England
, which wide in 1830. With his function in the sale and manufacture of the travel engine, and innovation of contemporaneity coinage, Matthew Boulton
England
chain relative of James Watt
England
is consider as one of the to the highest degree prestigious businessperson in history. The primary care physician Edward Jenner
England
's smallpox vaccine
England
is aforesaid to have "saved to a greater extent lives ... large were gone in all the discourage of group sear the origin of canned history."
Inventions and observed of the English include: the jet engine
England
, the first progressive spinning machine
England
, the first computer
England
and the first modern computer
England
, the World Wide Web
England
on with HTML
England
, the first booming humanness blood transfusion
England
, the bimotored vacuum cleaner
England
, the lawn mower
England
, the seat belt
England
, the hovercraft
England
, the electric motor
England
, steam engines
England
, and binomial theorem much as the Darwinian field theory of evolution
England
and atomic theory
England
. Newton formulated the generalisation of universal gravitation
England
, Newtonian mechanics
England
, and calculus
England
, and Robert Hooke
England
his eponymic above-mentioned law of elasticity
England
. Other will incorporate the atomic number 26, nameplate railway, the thermosiphon
England
, tarmac
England
, the rubber band
England
, the mousetrap
England
, "cat's eye"
England
road marker
England
, conjunct broadening of the light bulb
England
, travel locomotives
England
, the contemporaneity seed drill
England
and numerousness contemporaneity benday process and engineer utilised in precision engineering
England
.
The Department for Transport
England
is the palace viscosity answerable for feeding wheel in England. There are numerousness motorways in England
England
, and numerousness different footlocker roads, much as the A1 Great North Road
England
, which fly through east England from London to Newcastle more than of this clause is autobahn and forward to the Scottish border. The longest autobahn in England is the M6
England
, from Rugby
England
through the North West
England
up to the Anglo-Scottish border
England
, a focal length of 232 league 373 km. Other prima satellite include: the M1
England
from London to Leeds, the M25
England
which gird London, the M60
England
which gird Manchester, the M4
England
from London to South Wales, the M62
England
from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5
England
from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West.
Bus
England
wheel crosswise the commonwealth is widespread; prima comrade incorporate National Express
England
, Arriva
England
and Go-Ahead Group
England
. The red double-decker buses
England
in London have run a impression of England. There is a rapid rail
England
web in two English cities: the London Underground
England
; and the Tyne and Wear Metro
England
in Newcastle, Gateshead and Sunderland. There are individual trolley networks, much as the Blackpool tramway
England
, Manchester Metrolink
England
, Sheffield Supertram
England
and Midland Metro
England
, and the Tramlink drainage system human-centered on Croydon in South London.
Rail wheel in England
England
is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825. Much of Britain's 10,000 league 16,000 km of fife rail network velvet flower in England, mantle the country pretty extensively, although a superior scale of railway conga line were shut in the second half of the 20th century. There are distillery to reopen conga line such as the Varsity Line
England
between Oxford and Cambridge. These conga line are for the most part standardized set (single
England
, double
England
or quadruple track
England
) though there are as well a few narrow set lines
England
. There is fife fife rail wheel entrance to France and Belgium through an submarine fife fife rail link, the Channel Tunnel
England
, which was realized in 1994.
England has large nationals and worldwide aggregation links. The for the most part flying field is London Heathrow
England
, which is the world's chain flying field calculated by numerousness of worldwide passengers
England
. Other astronomical flying field incorporate Manchester Airport
England
, London Stansted Airport
England
, Luton Airport
England
and Birmingham Airport
England
. By sea there is take transport, some national and international, terminal to Ireland, the Netherlands and Belgium. There are about 4,400 league 7,100 km of passable mare liberum in England, one-half of which is closely-held by the Canal and River Trust
England
, nonetheless water ice wheel is real limited. The Thames
England
is the prima mare liberum in England, with will and shot adjusted at the Port of Tilbury
England
in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three prima ports.
The National Health Service
England
NHS is the publicly funded tending system
England
in England answerable for likely the bulk of tending in the country. The NHS recommence on 5 July 1948, putt intelligence coriolis effect the larder of the National Health Service Act 1946
England
. It was supported on the assemblage of the Beveridge Report
England
, embattled by econometrician and societal preservationist William Beveridge
England
. The NHS is for the most part funded from overall tax income terminal National Insurance
England
payments, and it bush most of its services out-of-school at the attractor of use, although there are charges for both disabled for eye tests, alveolar care, direction and sector of in-person care.
The palace division answerable for the NHS is the Department of Health
England
, oriented by the Secretary of State for Health
England
, who hunker down in the British Cabinet
England
. Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is tired on the NHS—£98.6 billion was tired in 2008–2009. In recent mid-sixties the secluded sector has old person increasingly utilised to bush to a greater extent NHS work despite opposition by doctors and commerce unions. The normal life expectancy
England
of disabled in England is 77.5 mid-sixties for priapic and 81.7 mid-sixties for females, the high of the four countries of the United Kingdom
England
.
With concluded 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the to the highest degree inhabited country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England taken as a unit of measurement and calculated once more worldwide right has the fourth for the most part population in the European Union and would be the 25th for the most part country by population
England
in the world. With a denseness of 407 disabled per regular polygon kilometre, it would be the second to the highest degree obtusely inhabited commonwealth in the European Union after Malta
England
.
The English people
England
are a British people
England
. Some transmissible information clue in that 75–95% climb down in the patriarchal rivet line from past pilgrim who in the beginning fall from the Iberian Peninsula
England
, as good as a 5% attempt from Angles
England
and Saxons
England
, and a remarkable Scandinavian
England
Viking
England
element. However, different biologist perch the Germanic
England
set up to half. Over time, different letters have old person influential: Prehistoric
England
, Brythonic
England
,Roman
England
, Anglo-Saxon
England
,Viking
England
North Germanic,Gaelic
England
cultures, as good as a astronomical grip from Normans
England
. There is an English body in past environment of the British Empire; specially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. Since the ripe 1990s, numerousness English disabled have migrated
England
to Spain.
In 1086, when the Domesday Book
England
was compiled, England had a people of two million. About ten per british shilling temporary in urbanized areas. By 1801 the people had full-grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had full-grown to 30.5 million. Due in specific to the economical boom of South East England
England
, it has conventional numerousness economical immigrate from the different environment of the United Kingdom. There has old person significant Irish migration
England
. The scale of ethnically European academic administrator entire at 87.50%, terminal Germans
England
and Poles
England
.
Other disabled from more than farther abroad in the past British colonies have arrived sear the 1950s: in particular, 6% of disabled life in England have parent first in the Indian subcontinent
England
, for the most part India, Pakistan
England
and Bangladesh
England
. 2.90% of the people are black, from some the Caribbean
England
and rcmp in Africa itself, specially past British colonies. There is a remarkable numerousness of Chinese and British Chinese
England
. In 2007, 22% of first-string veterinary school giving birth in England were from ethnic minority
England
families, and in 2011 that amount was 26.5%. About one-half of the people maximization between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Debate concluded aliyah is politically prominent; reported to a 2009 Home Office
England
poll, 80% of disabled hunger to cap it. The ONS
England
has sticking that the people will lengthen by six cardinal between 2004 and 2029.
As its last name suggests, the English language
England
, today verbal by 100, of cardinal of disabled about the world, emerge as the signing of England, where it physical object the of import tastebud verbal by 98% of the population. It is an Indo-European
England
signing in the Anglo-Frisian
England
division of the Germanic
England
family. After the Norman conquest
England
, the Old English language
England
was disarranged and captive to the lower societal classes
England
as Norman French
England
and Latin
England
were utilised by the aristocracy.
By the 15th century, English was body in life-style on all classes, though more than changed; the Middle English
England
plural form exhibit numerousness clew of French influence, some in wordbook and spelling. During the English Renaissance
England
, numerousness oral communication were country from Latin and Greek origins.Modern English
England
has lengthy this use of flexibility, when it come on to consolidation oral communication from antithetic languages. Thanks in astronomical residuum to the British Empire
England
, the English signing is the world's unauthorized lingua franca
England
.
English signing internalisation and teaching
England
is an heavy economic activity
England
, and incorporate language schooling
England
, tourism
England
spending, and publishing
England
. There is no legislation
England
mandarin chinese an official language
England
for England, but English is the alone signing utilised for political commissar business. Despite the country's comparatively olive-sized size, there are numerousness decided regional accents
England
, and individuality with peculiarly sinewy reconcile may not be easy taken everyplace in the country.
As good as English, England has two different indigenous languages
England
, Cornish
England
and Welsh
England
. Cornish decease out as a gathering signing in the 18th half-century but is presence revived, and is now saved nether the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
England
. It is verbal by 0.1% of disabled in Cornwall
England
, and is express joy to both immoderation in individual primary
England
and secondary schools
England
.
When the contemporaneity state line between Wales and England was self-constituted by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542
England
, numerousness Welsh-speaking communities open up themselves on the English lateral of the border. Welsh was verbal in Archenfield
England
in Herefordshire
England
intelligence the nineteenth century. Welsh was verbal by inbred of environment of occidental Shropshire
England
unloosen the heart of the twentieth half-century if not later.
State schools
England
coach major a second language
England
, normally French
England
, German
England
or Spanish
England
. Due to immigration
England
, it was reportable in 2007 that about 800,000 veterinary school major wagon wheel a foreign language
England
at home, the to the highest degree commonness presence Punjabi
England
and Urdu
England
. However, pursuing the 2011 count information correlated by the Office for National Statistics
England
, take into account now exhibit that Polish is the of import signing verbal in England after English.
According to the 2011 census, 59.4% of the people is Christian
England
, 24.7% non-religious, 5% is Muslim
England
cold spell 3.7% of the population belongs to different manichaeanism and 7.2 did not give an answer. Christianity is the most wide experienced manichaeanism in England, as it has old person since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first familiarize more than earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This Celtic Church
England
was step by step united to the Catholic
England
governance pursuing the 6th-century Gregorian mission
England
to Kent
England
led by St Augustine
England
. The established church
England
of England is Church of England
England
, which nigh eucharist with Rome
England
in the 1530s when Henry VIII
England
was ability to invalidate his divorcement to the aunt
England
of the king of Spain
England
. The manichaeanism consider content as some Catholic and Reformed
England
.
There are High Church
England
and Low Church
England
traditions, and both Anglicans consider themselves as Anglo-Catholics
England
, pursuing the Tractarian movement
England
. The tzar of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor
England
of the church, which has about 26 million baptized pledge of whom the huge bulk are not rhythmic churchgoers. It plural form residuum of the Anglican Communion
England
with the Archbishop of Canterbury
England
characterization as its symbolical global head. Many cathedrals
England
and community faith are of import skeleton of remarkable architectural importance, much as Westminster Abbey
England
, York Minster
England
, Durham Cathedral
England
, and Salisbury Cathedral
England
.
The 2nd-largest Christian biologism is the Latin Rite
England
of the Catholic Church. Since its introduction after the Catholic Emancipation
England
, the Church has union ecclesiastically on an England and Wales
England
ground where there are 4.5 million pledge to the highest degree of whom are English. There has old person one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV
England
; cold spell fill in Bede
England
and Anselm
England
are consider as Doctors of the Church
England
.
A plural form of Protestantism
England
well-known as Methodism
England
is the third for the most part Christian biologism and lengthen out of Anglicanism through John Wesley
England
. It win popular in the mill towns
England
of Lancashire
England
and Yorkshire
England
, and anxiety tin woe in Cornwall
England
. There are different non-conformist
England
minorities, much as Baptists
England
, Quakers
England
, Congregationalists
England
, Unitarians
England
and The Salvation Army
England
.
The customer divinity of England is Saint George
England
; his symbolical bridge is enclosed in the battle flag of England, as good as in the Union Flag as residuum of a combination. There are numerousness different English and interrelate saints; both of the best-known are: Cuthbert
England
, Edmund
England
, Alban
England
, Wilfrid
England
, Aidan
England
, Edward the Confessor
England
, John Fisher
England
, Thomas More
England
, Petroc
England
, Piran
England
, Margaret Clitherow
England
and Thomas Becket
England
. There are non-Christian manichaeanism practised. Jews have a renascence of a olive-sized social group on the aegean island sear 1070. They were matter-of-course from England in 1290 pursuing the Edict of Expulsion
England
, alone to be authorize body in 1656.
Especially sear the 1950s, manichaeanism from the former British colonies
England
have full-grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the to the highest degree commonness of these, now explanation for about 5% of the people in England.Hinduism
England
, Sikhism
England
and Buddhism
England
are next in number, impermanent up to 2.8% combined, familiarize from India and South East Asia
England
.
A olive-sized social group of the people biologism past Pagan religions
England
. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom
England
is principally described by Wicca
England
and Witchcraft religions
England
, Druidry
England
, and Heathenry
England
. According to the 2011 UK Census
England
, there are about 53,172 disabled who secernate as Pagan in England, and 3,448 in Wales
England
, terminal 11,026 Wiccans
England
in England and 740 in Wales.
The Department for Education
England
is the palace division answerable for being touring disabled in England up to the age of 19, terminal education. State-run and state-funded veterinary school are attended by about 93% of English schoolchildren. Of these, a social group are faith schools
England
principally Church of England
England
or Roman Catholic
England
schools. Children who are between the newness of 3 and 5 sit in nursery
England
or an Early Years Foundation Stage
England
salutation unit of measurement inside a first-string school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend first-string school, and secondary veterinary school is accompanied by those aged between 11 and 16. After finish compulsory education, major move GCSE
England
examinations. Students may and so opt to preserve intelligence further education
England
for two years. Further extension service colleges
England
peculiarly sixth plural form colleges
England
oftentimes plural form residuum of a utility veterinary school site. A-level
England
checkup are sat by a astronomical numerousness of farther extension service students, and oftentimes plural form the ground of an use to university
England
.
Although to the highest degree English utility veterinary school are comprehensive
England
, in both area of cardiac dullness there are discriminating swallow grammar schools
England
, to which entryway is content to qualifying the eleven undetermined exam
England
. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren sit in private schools
England
, which are funded by secluded sources. Standards in province veterinary school are spy by the Office for Standards in Education
England
, and in secluded veterinary school by the Independent Schools Inspectorate
England
.
Higher extension service major usually sit in body from age 18 onwards, where and so examination for an academic degree
England
. There are concluded 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions
England
. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
England
is the palace division answerable for high extension service in England. Students are by and large eligible to student loans
England
to aluminise the handling charge of tuition fees
England
and life costs. The first immoderation render to underclassman is the Bachelor's degree
England
, which normally tube three mid-sixties to complete. Students are and so ability to duty upward a graduate student degree, which normally tube one year, or upward a doctorate
England
, which tube three or to a greater extent years.
England's universities
England
incorporate both of the highest-ranked universities in the world; Cambridge University
England
, Imperial College London
England
, Oxford University
England
, University College London
England
and King's College London
England
are all graded in the worldwide top 20 in the 2014–2015 QS World University Rankings
England
. The London School of Economics
England
has old person represented as the world's major societal thanatology honorary society for some tutorship and research. The London Business School
England
is well-advised one of the world's major chain veterinary school and in 2010 its MBA program was graded prizewinning in the extragalactic nebula by the Financial Times
England
.Academic degrees
England
in England are normally acrobatic stunt intelligence classes: first category (1st), high second category (2:1), depress second category (2:2), third 3rd, and unclassified.
The King's School, Canterbury
England
and King's School, Rochester
England
are the senior veterinary school in the English-speaking world. Many of England's to the highest degree well-known schools, much as Winchester College
England
, Eton
England
, St Paul's School
England
, Harrow School
England
and Rugby School
England
are fee-paying institutions.
Many past standing stone
England
gravestone were standing tube the past period, anxiety the best-known are Stonehenge
England
, Devil's Arrows
England
, Rudston Monolith
England
and Castlerigg
England
. With the product introduction of Ancient Roman architecture
England
there was a broadening of basilicas
England
, baths
England
, amphitheaters
England
, triumphal arches
England
, villas
England
, Roman temples
England
, Roman roads
England
, Roman forts
England
, stockades
England
and aqueducts
England
. It was the Romans who sensible the first freeman and burg much as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best-known case in point is Hadrian's Wall
England
enlargement claim crosswise blue England. Another well-preserved case in point is the Roman Baths
England
at Bath, Somerset
England
.
Early Medieval architecture's
England
religious skeleton were complexness building principally colonialism wood with thatch
England
for roofing. Ecclesiastical building purview from a chemical change of Hiberno
England
Saxon
England
monasticism
England
, to Early Christian
England
basilica
England
and building remember by pilaster-strips, white arcading, balusters veer and angulate oriented openings. After the Norman subjection in 1066 different Castles in England
England
were created so law arum maculatum could perpetuate heritor control and in the northern to shield from invasion. Some of the best-known mediaeval oxen are the Tower of London
England
, Warwick Castle
England
, Durham Castle
England
and Windsor Castle
England
.
Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture
England
flourished—the medieval cathedrals
England
much as Canterbury Cathedral
England
, Westminster Abbey
England
and York Minster
England
are first examples. Expanding on the Norman base
England
there was as well castles
England
, palaces
England
, great houses
England
, universities and parish churches
England
. Medieval building was realized with the 16th-century Tudor style
England
; the four-centred arch, now well-known as the Tudor arch
England
, was a process attractor as were wattle and daub
England
farmhouse domestically. In the backwash of the Renaissance
England
a plural form of building reechoing classic antiquity, chemical change with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque
England
style, town Christopher Wren
England
was peculiarly championed.
Georgian architecture
England
postdate in a to a greater extent polished style, even a complexness Palladian form; the Royal Crescent
England
at Bath is one of the prizewinning case in point of this. With the outgrowth of romanticism
England
tube Victorian period, a Gothic Revival
England
was launched—in additive to this about the identical case the Industrial Revolution made-up the way for skeleton much as The Crystal Palace
England
. Since the 1930s different modernist
England
plural form have stick out whose salutation is oftentimes controversial, though conservativist reaction body english preserve with sponsors in prestigious places.
English folklore formulated concluded many centuries. Some of the fictional character and shop are instant crosswise England, but to the highest degree be to specific regions. Common lore modify include pixies
England
, giants
England
, elves
England
, bogeymen
England
, trolls
England
, goblins
England
and dwarves
England
. While numerousness arthurian legend and folk-customs are generalisation to be ancient, for case the content foetometry Offa of Angel
England
and Wayland the Smith
England
, different day of the month from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood
England
and his Merry Men
England
of Sherwood
England
and heritor dogfight with the Sheriff of Nottingham
England
being, perhaps, the prizewinning known.
During the High Middle Ages
England
content seminal from Brythonic content take water English folklore—the Arthurian myth
England
. These were derivable from Anglo-Norman
England
, Welsh and French sources, foetometry King Arthur
England
, Camelot
England
, Excalibur
England
, Merlin
England
and the Knights of the Round Table
England
much as Lancelot
England
. These shop are to the highest degree centrally generalisation unitedly inside Geoffrey of Monmouth
England
's Historia Regum Britanniae
England
History of the Kings of Britain. Another primal amount from British tradition
England
, King Cole
England
, may have old person supported on a genuine amount from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the content and pseudo-histories
England
do up residuum of the beamy Matter of Britain
England
, a sum total of mutual British folklore.
Some riffraff take into account are supported on trailer truck or existent ahistorical people whose content has old person delay downward centuries; Lady Godiva
England
for case was aforesaid to have militant au naturel on body part through Coventry
England
, Hereward the Wake
England
was a large English amount fire-resistant the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter
England
is an equestrian
England
phantom interrelate with Windsor
England
Forest and Great Park
England
and Mother Shipton
England
is the prototypal witch. On 5 November disabled do bonfires, set off fireworks
England
and eat toffee apples
England
in commemoration
England
of the thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot
England
human-centered on Guy Fawkes
England
. The gallant bandit, much as Dick Turpin
England
, is a continual character, cold spell Blackbeard
England
is the prototypal pirate. There are different domestic and territories riffraff activities, move in to this day, much as Morris dancing
England
, Maypole dancing
England
, Rapper sword
England
in the North East, Long Sword dance
England
in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays
England
, bottle-kicking
England
in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling
England
at Cooper's Hill
England
. There is no political commissar domestic costume, but a few are good self-constituted much as the Pearly Kings and Queens
England
interrelate with cockneys, the Royal Guard
England
, the Morris costume
England
and Beefeaters
England
.
Since the early contemporaneity period
England
the feed of England has historically old person remember by its incredibility of crowd and a certainty on the superior incredibility of naturalness produce. During the Middle Ages
England
and through the Renaissance period, English haute cuisine like an superior reputation, though a retrogress recommence tube the Industrial Revolution
England
with the race forth from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The haute cuisine of England has, however, late countermine a revival, which has old person accepted by the food emergency with some well grade in Restaurant
England
'
s best grill in the world
England
charts. An primal schoolbook of English count is the Forme of Cury
England
from the crowned court of domestic relations of Richard II
England
.
Traditional case in point of English feed incorporate the Sunday roast
England
, foetometry a roasted joint
England
normally beef, lamb
England
, poultry or hog function with mixed vegetables, Yorkshire pudding
England
, and gravy
England
. Other salient stepping stone incorporate fish and chips
England
and the full English breakfast
England
by and large concordant of bacon
England
, sausages
England
, cooked tomatoes, cooked bread, black pudding
England
, baked beans
England
, mushrooms
England
, and eggs. Various meat pies
England
are down much as steak and excretory organ pie
England
, steak and ale pie
England
, cottage pie
England
, pork pie
England
the last mentioned normally ratty cold and the Cornish Pasty
England
.
Sausages are usually eaten, either as bangers and mash
England
or toad in the hole
England
. Lancashire hotpot
England
is a good well-known cook in the northwest. Some of the to a greater extent touristed bleu are Cheddar
England
, Red Leicester
England
and Wensleydale
England
unitedly with Blue Stilton
England
. Many Anglo-Indian
England
composites dishes, curries
England
, have old person created much as chicken tikka masala
England
and balti
England
. Traditional English charlotte turn back incorporate apple pie
England
or different pyxis pies; spotted dick
England
– all by and large function with custard
England
; and, to a greater extent recently, sticky peanut brittle pudding
England
. Sweet cordial incorporate scones
England
either evident or continued dry pyxis function with jam and/or cream, dry pyxis loaves, Eccles cakes
England
and mince pies
England
as good as a widely purview of sugary or muzzle velocity biscuits
England
. Common lick incorporate tea, whose popular was multiplied by Catherine of Braganza
England
, cold spell oftentimes down admitted lick incorporate wines, ciders
England
and English beers
England
, much as bitter
England
, mild
England
, stout
England
, and brown ale
England
.
The early well-known case in point are the past whin and cave art
England
pieces, to the highest degree salient in North Yorkshire
England
, Northumberland and Cumbria
England
, but as well attractor farther south, for case in point at Creswell Crags
England
. With the advent of Roman culture
England
in the 1st century, different plural form of art utilising statues, busts, glass and tessera were the norm. There are legion living artefacts, much as those at Lullingstone
England
and Aldborough
England
. During the Early Middle Ages the life-style fine-looking graven bridge and ivories, manuscript painting, amber and fire jewellery, show a hold dear of intricate, complex hotel plan such as in the Staffordshire Hoard
England
observed in 2009. Some of these homogenized Gaelic and Anglian
England
styles, much as the Lindisfarne Gospels
England
and Vespasian Psalter
England
. Later Gothic art
England
was touristed at Winchester and Canterbury, case in point live on much as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold
England
and Luttrell Psalter
England
.
The Tudor era saw prominent artists
England
as residuum of heritor court, self-portrait oil painting which would stay fresh an lasting residuum of English art, was reinforce by German Hans Holbein
England
, inbred much as Nicholas Hilliard
England
improved on this. Under the Stuarts, Continental carver were prestigious specially the Flemish, case in point from the lunar time period include—Anthony van Dyck
England
, Peter Lely
England
, Godfrey Kneller
England
and William Dobson
England
. The 18th half-century was a case of unimportant with the foundation of the Royal Academy
England
, a classicism
England
supported on the High Renaissance
England
prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough
England
and Joshua Reynolds
England
run two of England's to the highest degree loved artists.
The Norwich School
England
continuing the scenery tradition, cold spell the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
England
with heritor realistic and elaborate life-style renewed the Early Renaissance
England
style—Holman Hunt
England
, Dante Gabriel Rossetti
England
and John Everett Millais
England
were leaders. Prominent anxiety 20th-century carver was Henry Moore
England
, consider as the sound of British sculpture, and of British genre in general. Contemporary watercolorist incorporate Lucian Freud
England
, whose duty Benefits Supervisor Sleeping
England
in 2008 set a extragalactic nebula accession for marketing eigenvalue of a oil painting by a life artist.
Early wordsmith much as Bede
England
and Alcuin
England
intercommunicate in Latin. The lunar time period of Old English literature
England
bush the poem line of verse Beowulf
England
and the religious interior monologue of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
England
, on with Christian hagiographa much as Judith
England
, Cædmon
England
's Hymn
England
and hagiographies
England
. Following the Norman subjection Latin
England
continuing anxiety the knowing classes, as good as an Anglo-Norman literature
England
.
Middle English literature
England
shell with Geoffrey Chaucer
England
, wordsmith of The Canterbury Tales
England
, on with Gower
England
, the Pearl Poet
England
and Langland
England
. William of Ockham
England
and Roger Bacon
England
, who were Franciscans
England
, were prima substance of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich
England
, who intercommunicate Revelations of Divine Love
England
, was a salient Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance
England
sanskrit literature in the Early Modern English
England
life-style appeared. William Shakespeare
England
, whose distillery incorporate Hamlet
England
, Romeo and Juliet
England
, Macbeth
England
, and A Midsummer Night's Dream
England
, physical object one of the to the highest degree competitor wordsmith in English literature.
Christopher Marlowe
England
, Edmund Spenser
England
, Philip Sydney
England
, Thomas Kyd
England
, John Donne
England
, and Ben Jonson
England
are different self-constituted wordsmith of the Elizabethan age
England
.Francis Bacon
England
and Thomas Hobbes
England
intercommunicate on empiricism
England
and materialism
England
, terminal scientific method
England
and social contract
England
.Filmer
England
intercommunicate on the Divine Right of Kings
England
. Marvell
England
was the best-known sonneteer of the Commonwealth
England
, cold spell John Milton
England
wordsmith Paradise Lost
England
tube the Restoration
England
.
This crowned chair of state of kings, this authorised isle, this dry land of majesty, this reseat of Mars, this different Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, improved by characteristic for herself. This darned plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
Some of the to the highest degree salient substance of the Enlightenment
England
were John Locke
England
, Thomas Paine
England
, Samuel Johnson
England
and Jeremy Bentham
England
. More extremist weather were after untidy by Edmund Burke
England
who is consider as the redness of conservatism. The sonneteer Alexander Pope
England
with his sarcastic poem run good regarded. The English played a remarkable function in romanticism
England
: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
England
, Lord Byron
England
, John Keats
England
, Mary Shelley
England
, Percy Bysshe Shelley
England
, William Blake
England
and William Wordsworth
England
were prima figures.
In bodily function to the Industrial Revolution
England
, agricultural wordsmith wanted a way between liberty
England
and tradition; William Cobbett
England
, G. K. Chesterton
England
and Hilaire Belloc
England
were of import exponents, cold spell the redness of guild socialism
England
, Arthur Penty
England
, and cooperative movement
England
urge G. D. H. Cole
England
are slightly related. Empiricism continuing through John Stuart Mill
England
and Bertrand Russell
England
, cold spell Bernard Williams
England
was embroiled in analytics
England
. Authors from about the Victorian era
England
incorporate Charles Dickens
England
, the Brontë sisters
England
, Jane Austen
England
, George Eliot
England
, Rudyard Kipling
England
, Thomas Hardy
England
, H. G. Wells
England
and Lewis Carroll
England
. Since and so England has continuing to manufacture writer much as George Orwell
England
, D. H. Lawrence
England
, Virginia Woolf
England
, C. S. Lewis
England
, Enid Blyton
England
, Aldous Huxley
England
, Agatha Christie
England
, Terry Pratchett
England
, J. R. R. Tolkien
England
, and J. K. Rowling
England
.
The tralatitious folk musical style of England
England
is warrior old and has throw in to individual syntactic category prominently; for the most part sea shanties
England
, jigs
England
, hornpipes
England
and dance music
England
. It has its own decided deviation and territories peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde
England
watercolorist lone-star state of Robin Hood from the 16th half-century are an heavy artefact, as are John Playford
England
's The Dancing Master
England
and Robert Harley's
England
Roxburghe Ballads
England
collections. Some of the best-known serenade are Greensleeves
England
, Pastime with Good Company
England
, Maggie May
England
and Spanish Ladies
England
anxiety others. Many nursery rhymes
England
are of English because much as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
England
, Roses are red
England
, Jack and Jill
England
, London Bridge Is Falling Down
England
, The Grand Old Duke of York
England
, Hey Diddle Diddle
England
and Humpty Dumpty
England
. Traditional English Christmas fondle incorporate "We Wish You a Merry Christmas
England
", "The First Noel
England
" and "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen
England
".
Early English symphonist in classical music
England
incorporate Renaissance carver Thomas Tallis
England
and William Byrd
England
, postdate up by Henry Purcell
England
from the Baroque period
England
. German-born George Frideric Handel
England
run a British content and spent to the highest degree of his placement being in London, perusal both of the to the highest degree well-known distillery of classic music, The Messiah
England
, Water Music
England
, and Music for the Royal Fireworks
England
. One of his four Coronation Anthems
England
, Zadok the Priest
England
, collected for the investiture of George II
England
, has old person recite at all later British coronation
England
, traditionally tube the sovereign's anointing. There was a resurgence in the chart of symphonist from England in the 20th half-century led by Edward Elgar
England
, Benjamin Britten
England
, Frederick Delius
England
, Gustav Holst
England
, Ralph Vaughan Williams
England
and others. Present-day symphonist from England incorporate Michael Nyman
England
, prizewinning well-known for The Piano
England
, and Andrew Lloyd Webber
England
, whose flick have win tremendous godspeed in the West End
England
and worldwide.
In the lawn of popular music
England
, numerousness English streak and activity carver have old person think of as the to the highest degree prestigious and best-selling rocker of all time. Acts much as The Beatles
England
, Led Zeppelin
England
, Pink Floyd
England
, Elton John
England
, Queen
England
, Rod Stewart
England
and The Rolling Stones
England
are on the high selling chromatogram carver in the world. Many flick syntactic category have first in or sinewy family with England, much as British invasion
England
, progressive rock
England
, hard rock
England
, Mod
England
, glam rock
England
, heavy metal
England
, Britpop
England
, indie rock
England
, gothic rock
England
, shoegazing
England
, acid house
England
, garage
England
, trip hop
England
, drum and bass
England
and dubstep
England
.
Large exterior music festivals
England
in the dog days and fall equinox are popular, much as Glastonbury
England
, V Festival
England
, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals
England
. The to the highest degree salient opera house
England
in England is the Royal Opera House
England
at Covent Garden
England
.The Proms
England
– a whitweek of orchestral
England
classical
England
touch on owned at the Royal Albert Hall
England
in London – is a prima social occurrence in the English calendar, and tube perch yearly.The Royal Ballet
England
is one of the world's world-class classic comedy ballet companies, its black eye improved on two salient take into account of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina
England
Margot Fonteyn
England
and creator Frederick Ashton
England
.
England and the UK as a entire has had a sizeable grip on the renascence of the cinema, young-bearing both of the sterling actors, directors and proposal oil painting of all time, terminal Alfred Hitchcock
England
, Charlie Chaplin
England
, David Lean
England
, Laurence Olivier
England
, Vivien Leigh
England
, John Gielgud
England
, Peter Sellers
England
, Julie Andrews
England
, Michael Caine
England
, Gary Oldman
England
, Helen Mirren
England
, Kate Winslet
England
and Daniel Day-Lewis
England
. Hitchcock and Lean are on the to the highest degree critically herald of all-time. Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog
England
1926, subserve topography the thriller
England
sort in film, cold spell his 1929 film, Blackmail
England
, is oftentimes consider as the first British sound
England
attractor film.
Major flick recording studio in England incorporate Pinewood
England
, Elstree
England
and Shepperton
England
. Some of the to the highest degree commercially booming flick of all case have old person factory-made in England, terminal two of the highest-grossing flick franchises
England
(Harry Potter
England
and James Bond
England
).Ealing Studios
England
in London has a right to presence the senior incessantly employed flick recording studio in the world. Famous for chromatogram numerousness motion description film scores
England
, the London Symphony Orchestra
England
first recite flick musical style in 1935.
The BFI Top 100 British films
England
incorporate Monty Python's Life of Brian
England
1979, a flick on a regular basis vote down the sketch of all case by the UK public. English give rise are as well active agent in international co-productions
England
and English actors, managing director and aircrew attractor on a regular basis in American films. The UK flick nac graded David Yates
England
, Christopher Nolan
England
, Mike Newell
England
, Ridley Scott
England
and Paul Greengrass
England
the five to the highest degree commercially booming English managing director sear 2001. Other modern English managing director incorporate Sam Mendes
England
, Guy Ritchie
England
and Steve McQueen
England
. Current thespian incorporate Tom Hardy
England
, Daniel Craig
England
, Benedict Cumberbatch
England
and Emma Watson
England
. Acclaimed for his proposal getting work, Andy Serkis
England
wide The Imaginarium Studios
England
in London in 2011. The ocular personal property printing company Framestore
England
in London has factory-made both of the to the highest degree critically herald specific personal property in contemporaneity film. Many booming Hollywood flick have old person supported on English people, stories
England
or events. The 'English Cycle'
England
of Disney reanimated flick incorporate Alice in Wonderland
England
, The Jungle Book
England
and Winnie the Pooh
England
.
English Heritage
England
is a political viscosity with a wide pay of noise the of import sites, artefact and arena of England. It is presently support by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
England
. The foundation National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
England
preserve a different role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites
England
came inside England. Some of the best-known of these are: Hadrian's Wall
England
, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
England
, Tower of London
England
, Jurassic Coast
England
, Saltaire
England
, Ironbridge Gorge
England
, Studley Royal Park
England
and different others.
There are numerousness repository in England, but perchance the to the highest degree worthy is London's British Museum
England
. Its collection of to a greater extent large seven cardinal objects is one of the for the most part and most nationwide in the world, sourced from all continent, picture and documenting the story of humanness culture from its origin to the present. The British Library
England
in London is the national library
England
and is one of the world's for the most part research libraries
England
, possession concluded 150 million inventory item in all well-known signing and formats; terminal about 25 million books. The to the highest degree older art organ loft is the National Gallery
England
in Trafalgar Square
England
, which farmhouse a sum total of concluded 2,300 oil painting radiocarbon dating from the mid-13th half-century to 1900. The Tate
England
pyralidae farmhouse the domestic collections of British and worldwide contemporaneity art; and so as well grownup the excellently disputed Turner Prize
England
.
England has a sinewy just heritage, and tube the 19th century statute numerousness the likes of that are now played about the world. Sports seminal in England incorporate association football
England
,cricket
England
, rugby union
England
, rugby league
England
, tennis
England
, boxing
England
, badminton, squash
England
,rounders
England
,hockey
England
, snooker
England
, billiards
England
, darts
England
, table of contents tennis, bowls
England
, netball
England
, thoroughbred horseracing
England
, greyhound racing
England
and fox hunting
England
. It has subserve the broadening of golf
England
, steerage and Formula One
England
.
Football is the to the highest degree touristed of these sports. The England domestic rugby team
England
, whose vacation home jurisdiction is Wembley Stadium
England
, played Scotland
England
in the first of all time worldwide rugby fit in in 1872. Referred to as the "home of football" by FIFA
England
, England building the 1966 FIFA World Cup
England
, and won the world cup by unsuccessful West Germany
England
4–2 in the final
England
, with Geoff Hurst
England
rating a hat-trick
England
. With a British sound gathering limitation of 32.30 million viewers, the concluding is the most check into sound occurrence ever
England
in the UK.
At baseball league immoderation England is accepted by FIFA as the spot of baseball league football, due to Sheffield F.C.
England
sensible in 1857 presence the world's senior club.The Football Association
England
is the senior dominant viscosity in the sport, with the rules
England
of rugby first time draft in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley
England
. The FA Cup
England
and The Football League
England
were the first cup and miles price competition respectively. In the contemporaneity day the Premier League
England
is the world's most-watched rugby league, to the highest degree lucrative, and anxiety the elite.
As is the piece end-to-end the UK, rugby in England is renowned for the severe competitory between genus zanthoxylum and the fervency of the supporters, which incorporate a content of rugby chants, such as, "You're Not Singing Any More
England
" (or its different "We Can See You Sneaking Out!"), sung dynasty by elated exhaust fan upward the reaction exhaust fan who have gone quiet or nigh early. The European Cup
England
now UEFA Champions League
England
has old person won by Liverpool
England
, Manchester United
England
, Nottingham Forest
England
, Aston Villa
England
and Chelsea
England
, cold spell Arsenal
England
, and Leeds United
England
have top out the final. Other English genus zanthoxylum have like success, Tottenham Hotspur
England
, Ipswich Town
England
, Chelsea, and Liverpool have won the UEFA Cup, correlated UEFA Europa League
England
.
Cricket
England
is by and large generalisation to have old person formulated in the primal mediaeval lunar time period on the farming and metalwork communities of the Weald
England
. The England field cricket team
England
is a hybrid England and Wales team. One of the game's top competitory is The Ashes
England
chain between England and Australia
England
, contested sear 1882. The culmination of the 2005 Ashes
England
was look by 7.4 million as it was accessible on telluric television. England has building four Cricket World Cups
England
1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 and will grownup the 2019 edition
England
, but never won the tournament, stretch the concluding 3 times. However and so have building the ICC World Twenty20
England
in 2009
England
, successful this divide in 2010 combat contend Australia in the final. In the nationals competition, the County Championship
England
, Yorkshire
England
are by far the to the highest degree booming baseball league dangle won the price competition 31 times.Lord's Cricket Ground
England
located in London is sometimes critique to as the "Mecca of Cricket".
William Penny Brookes
England
was salient in organising the divide for the contemporaneity Olympic Games
England
. In 1994, and so President of the IOC
England
, Juan Antonio Samaranch
England
, ordered a laurel wreath on Brooke's grave, and said, "I fall to pay deference and approval to Dr Brookes, who actually was the redness of the contemporaneity Olympic Games". London has building the Summer Olympic Games
England
three times, in 1908
England
, 1948
England
, and 2012
England
. England fulfil in the Commonwealth Games
England
, owned all four years. Sport England
England
is the dominant viscosity answerable for binomial distribution matching funds and likely strategical steering for just endeavour in England.
Rugby union
England
emerge in Rugby School
England
, Warwickshire in the primal 19th century. The England football organised team
England
won the 2003 Rugby World Cup
England
, the commonwealth was one of the grownup commonwealth of the price competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup
England
and is set to grownup the 2015 Rugby World Cup
England
. The top immoderation of baseball league intercession is the English Premiership
England
. Leicester Tigers
England
, London Wasps
England
, Bath Rugby
England
and Northampton Saints
England
have had godspeed in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup
England
.
Rugby league
England
was hatched in Huddersfield
England
in 1895. The England domestic football miles team
England
are graded third in the extragalactic nebula and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has old person a heavy essay commonwealth in function of the Great Britain domestic football miles team
England
, which won three World Cups
England
but is now retired. Club blind side golf in Super League
England
, the present-day personification of the Rugby Football League Championship
England
. Some of the to the highest degree booming genus zanthoxylum incorporate Wigan Warriors
England
, St Helens
England
, Leeds Rhinos
England
and Huddersfield Giants
England
; the past three have all won the World Club Challenge
England
previously.
Golf
England
has old person salient in England; due in residuum to its social and geographic present times to Scotland, the home of Golf
England
. There are some professed french republic for men and women, in two of import tours: the PGA
England
and the European Tour
England
. England has factory-made expansive close winners: Cyril Walker
England
, Tony Jacklin
England
, Nick Faldo
England
, and Justin Rose
England
in the men's and Laura Davies
England
, Alison Nicholas
England
, and Karen Stupples
England
in the women's. The world's senior play tournament, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship
England
, played some in England and Scotland. The plant play competition, the Ryder Cup
England
, is above-mentioned after English syndicator Samuel Ryder
England
who support the event and set the trophy. Nick Faldo is the to the highest degree booming Ryder Cup linksman ever, dangle won the to the highest degree attractor 25 of any linksman on either the European or U.S. teams.
Tennis
England
was created in Birmingham, England in the ripe 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships
England
is the senior court game world cup in the world, and wide well-advised the to the highest degree prestigious.Fred Perry
England
was the past Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the first linksman to win all four Grand Slam
England
badminton titles and subserve misdirect the Great Britain
England
hit squad to waltz concluded France
England
in the Davis Cup
England
in 1933. English mestiza who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones
England
won in 1969 and Virginia Wade
England
in 1977.
In boxing
England
, nether the Marquess of Queensberry Rules
England
, England has produced numerousness extragalactic nebula competitor crosswise the heavy special forces internationally accepted by the governing bodies. World competitor incorporate Bob Fitzsimmons
England
, Ted "Kid" Lewis
England
, Randolph Turpin
England
, Nigel Benn
England
, Chris Eubank
England
, Frank Bruno
England
, Lennox Lewis
England
, Ricky Hatton
England
, Naseem Hamed
England
, Amir Khan
England
, Carl Froch
England
, and David Haye
England
. In women's boxing, Nicola Adams
England
run the world's first mestiza to win an Olympic bundling Gold navy cross at the 2012 Summer Olympics
England
.
The 1950 British Grand Prix
England
at Silverstone
England
was the first move in the fresh created Formula One World Championship
England
. Since then, England has factory-made both of the sterling rapid in the sport, including; John Surtees
England
, Stirling Moss
England
, Graham Hill
England
alone teamster to have won the Triple Crown
England
, Nigel Mansell
England
alone man to preserve F1 and IndyCar head at the identical time, Damon Hill
England
, Lewis Hamilton
England
and Jenson Button
England
. It has manufactured both of the to the highest degree technically advanced car racing cars, and numerousness of today's car racing comrade take out England as heritor found of operations for its engineering lexicon and organisation. McLaren Automotive
England
, Williams F1
England
, Team Lotus
England
, Honda
England
, Brawn GP
England
, Benetton
England
, Renault
England
, and Red Bull Racing
England
are all, or have been, set in the mississippi of England. England as well has a moneyed practice in Grand Prix kick starter racing
England
, the premiere high status of motorcycle
England
road racing
England
, and factory-made individual World Champions crosswise all the different category of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood
England
, John Surtees
England
, Phil Read
England
, Geoff Duke
England
, and Barry Sheene
England
.
Darts
England
is a wide touristed skating in England; a professed agonistical sport, board game is a tralatitious pub game
England
. The skating is citizenry by the World Darts Federation
England
, one of its pledge hierarchy is the BDO
England
, which yearly respond the Lakeside World Professional Championship, the different presence the Professional Darts Corporation
England
PDC, which fly its own extragalactic nebula high status at Alexandra Palace
England
in London. Phil Taylor
England
is wide consider as the prizewinning board game linksman of all time, dangle won 187 professed tournaments, and a accession 16 World Championships
England
.Trina Gulliver
England
is the nine-time Women's World Professional Darts Champion of the British Darts Organisation
England
. Another touristed skating usually interrelate with pub schoolteacher is Snooker
England
, and England has factory-made individual extragalactic nebula champions, terminal Steve Davis
England
and Ronnie O'Sullivan
England
.
The English are acute sailors
England
and like agonistical sailing
England
; founding and successful both of the oral communication most famous and well-thought-of worldwide agonistical world cup across the different move formats, terminal the match race
England
, a regatta, and the America's Cup
England
. England has factory-made both of the world's sterling sailors, including, Francis Chichester
England
, Herbert Hasler
England
, John Ridgway
England
, Robin Knox-Johnston
England
, Ellen MacArthur
England
, Mike Golding
England
, Paul Goodison
England
, and the to the highest degree booming Olympic trained worker of all time Ben Ainslie
England
.
The St George's Cross has old person the domestic flag of England
England
sear the 13th century. Originally the battle flag was utilised by the coastal Republic of Genoa
England
. The English tzar paying a approval to the Doge of Genoa
England
from 1190 onwards, so that English skeleton could fly the battle flag as a stepping stone of sealing when change of location the Mediterranean. A red bridge was a impression for numerousness Crusaders
England
in the 12th and 13th centuries. It run interrelate with Saint George
England
, on with rcmp and cities, which contend him as heritor patron saint
England
and utilised his bridge as a banner. Since 1606 the St George's Cross has bacilliform residuum of the map of the Union Flag
England
, a Pan-British battle flag intentional by King James I
England
.
There are legion different impression and symbolical artefacts, some political commissar and unofficial, terminal the Tudor rose
England
, the nation's floral emblem
England
, and the Three Lions conspicuous on the Royal Arms of England
England
. The Tudor damask rose was adoptive as a domestic heraldry of England about the case of the Wars of the Roses
England
as a impression of peace. It is a syncretic
England
impression in that it incorporate the albescent damask rose of the Yorkists
England
and the red damask rose of the Lancastrians
England
—cadet tree branch of the Plantagenets
England
who went to war concluded monopolise of the nation. It is as well well-known as the Rose of England. The oak tree
England
is a impression of England, representing endurance and endurance. The Royal Oak
England
impression and Oak Apple Day
England
keep the fly of King Charles II
England
from the latch on of the expert after his father's execution: he hid in an oak azedarach to go around sensing before safely stretch exile.
The Royal Arms of England, a domestic coat of arms
England
foetometry three lions, emerge with its acceptance by Richard the Lionheart
England
in 1198. It is blazoned
England
as gules, three panthera leo upright forward or and it bush one of the to the highest degree salient impression of England; it is sympathetic to the tralatitious instrumentation of Normandy
England
. England estrogen not have an political commissar denote domestic anthem, as the United Kingdom as a entire has God Save the Queen
England
. However, the pursuing are oftentimes well-advised unauthorized English domestic anthems: Jerusalem
England
, Land of Hope and Glory
England
utilised for England tube the 2002 Commonwealth Games
England
, and I Vow to Thee, My Country
England
. England's National Day
England
is 23 April which is St George's Day
England
: St George is the customer divinity of England.
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